Tuesday, December 6, 2011

Is Air Traffic Control (ATC) Using Procedures To Deliberately Discourage Pilots From Making Requests?

John F. Kennedy Taxi Chart

Is Air Traffic Control (ATC) using procedures to deliberately discourage pilots from making requests?

I believe Air Traffic Controllers are trained to use phraseology that discourages pilots from making "requests". This question arises out of my experience while scheduled to fly the non-stop flight out of John F. Kennedy (JFK) airport to Tel Aviv, Israel a distance of 5,667 miles.  The airplane I was flying was a Boeing 747-200 which has a maximum gross weight for take off of 775,000 pounds. It would carry in excess of 430 passengers plus 21 crew as well as more than 350,000 pounds of fuel.
I was flying this flight on a regular basis.  It would depart at 1030 PM and required a total flight time in excess of 10 hours and thirty minutes. At this time of the day, with wind, weather and runway conditions as no factor, the runway in use by JFK was established by the prevailing noise abatement policy to be runway 22R. Runway 22R is 11,351 feet long and runway 31L is 14,511 feet in length.  Runway 31L is 3,160 feet longer than Runway 22R.

The majority of the times I flew this flight,  the gross weight of the aircraft was at its maximum of 775,000 pounds.
Boeing 747-200
I had considered the question - what would be the most demanding maneuver an  airline captain could be called upon to perform? The answer is - A high speed, high gross weight aborted takeoff! I think most of you would confirm my conclusion as correct. As a result, I would request the use of the longest runway for my departures to Tel Aviv.

On each of my departures from JFK, I would have my co-pilot request its use on our first call to ground control.  In every case, the response from the ground controller was the same,  He would say, "The runway in use tonight is runway 22R."  I would then direct my co-pilot to let the controller know we were aware of that fact but we were still requesting runway 31L for departure.

The response from the ground controller was always - "There will be an indefinite delay for you to use runway 31L." What is the definition of an "indefinite delay"?  I discovered there is none.  As a result, I decided to accept the delay (whatever it was as I could not get an estimate from  the ground controller) and I would finally hear the words I wanted to hear from ground control - "...taxi to runway 31L."

I would than taxi to runway 31L and when I got there discovered I was number one for takeoff.  My "indefinite delay" turned out to be zero.
JFK Tower
This same sceniero was repeated many times in my remaining flights to Tel Aviv. I began to arrive at the conclusion that the air traffic controllers were trained to use their responses to my requests in an effort to discourage me from making them. As only the pilot in command determines which runway is used for  take off, it did not cause me to change my requests. What do you think?Updated Wednesday, December 28, 2011.

Continuous Descent Final Approaches (CDFA) Designed to Replace "Dive and Drive" Non-Precision Approaches

Do you have the ability to fly Continuous Descent Final Approaches in your aircraft (CDFA)?  They are intended to do away with the "Dive and Drive" non-precision approach procedure. More to come...

"T" Routes, "Q" Routes and the "Grid"

What is a "T" Route? What is a "Q" Route? What is the High Altitude Grid? More to come...
Q-routes and T-Routes are high-altitude RNAV routes that start and end at a point in space. Their development and implementation initiates the transition from conventionally-based en route routing to performance-based en route routing, replacing the existing Jet and Victor airway system with RNAV/RNP routing systems.

Monday, December 5, 2011

How to Google Efficiently

My brother  just sent me to this web site that will result in teaching you how to Google efficiently and more quickly.  It is found at:

Monday, November 21, 2011

GPS versus LightSquared

           GPS              versus        logo
Most of you should be aware by now there exists controversy between the company known as LightSquared and the present users of the Global Positioning System (GPS) system. LightSquared is a company planning to provide a nationwide 4G-LTE open wireless super high speed broadband network for access to the Internet. The service will fill the gaps in present wireless (WIFI) coverage utilizing Inmarsat satellites built by Boeing as well as 40,000 dedicated ground stations.

The United States now ranks 18th among the countries in making internet connections available to its citizens.  LightSquared is aiming its services to improve the current situation and is currently before the Federal Communications Commissions (FCC) in an effort to approve its use of the frequencies that are close to the frequencies presently used by the GPS receivers.

Opposition to LightSquared plans have risen from the fact that their signals (more than a billion times stronger than the GPS and GLONSS signals) will interfere with the reception of GPS signals by some of the present receivers in use today. The opposition has taken the form of political concerns issued by members of congress as well as testimony and letters to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) suggesting a denial.

Although most GPS related magazines have supported this denial a paper by JAVAD GNSS will provide a counter point to some of the arguments for denial.

The kinds of GPS receivers most likely to be affected are those used by surveyors for high accuracy measurements that use the Real Time Kinematic (RTK) technique which will result in an accuracy of plus or minus one centimeter.

When the authorities made the decision to accept the lowest powered GPS signals to be utilized, consideration should have been given to the possibility of the ramifications of this decision.  The very low power of the GPS signals makes them vulnerable to interference as well as being easily jammed. When the latest version of the Block III satellites are launched beginning in 2014, the signal strength will be increased by a factor of three.

However, as the signals to be used in LightSquared's service are more than a billion times stronger than the GPS signals, the increased power of the Block III satellites will have little effect.

As a result of recognizing the benefits that LightSquared will offer users of the internet, I have taken the position that LightSquared's efforts should be supported even though some of the present GPS receivers will have to be modified. This modification will cost owners of the affected units as little as $8 to as much as $8,000.  The higher cost is in those units used for high accuracy receivers.

It appears that LightSquared's signals will also affect the Russian Glonass system. but not as seriously. On the other hand, the impact on Galileo will be worse. So far, I have not read if they will affect China's Compass satellite navigation system or not.

The Federal Communications Commission has a difficult decision to make. As far as I know, there is no time line to let us know when the decision will be made.  The most recent technical report to the FCC confirms LightSquared signals interfere with GPS signals.   For a really interesting source of information on this issue, both pro and con, read the Forbes Magazine article as well as the comments to the story that was posted on December 21, 2011. The story will appear in the January 12, 2012 issue of Forbes Magazine.  Stay tuned:
See: LightSquared: GPS Community Has No Legal Gripe
Latest LightSquared comments from Aviation International News Alerts
...updated  Sunday, January 1, 2012

Wednesday, November 2, 2011

50+ Web Site Addresses for International Flight Operations

(updated again May 19, 2013 to add URL A. )
(updated January 18, 2013 to update all the links and remove acronyms)

Here are 50+ useful acronym free “hot link clickable” Uniform Resource Locators which are web page addresses, regarding International flight operations:

A.  The above link will permit you to access a brand new really rich source of Information concerning International Flight Operations provided by the Federal Aviation Administration. 

1. The above link will get you to the GPS World Magazine's web site. A great resource to obtain good Global Positioning Systems information.

1a. The above link will let you view the 1,604 page United States Aeronautical Information Publication.

2. The above link will get you to a copy of the United States Department of Homeland Security "Customs and Border Patrol  Private Air Advance Passenger Information System  Guide".

2a. The above link will let you access the Customs and Border Patrol to create an electronic Advanced Passenger Information System list of everyone on board your aircraft (both passengers and crew) required to be sent one hour prior to arrival or departure from the United States.

3. The above link will get you to a Danish web site that will permit you to down load digital copies at no cost of all 18 International Civil Aviation Organization Annexes as well as  Document 4444 at no cost and these documents are searchable using the find function of your computer applications.

4. The above link will access the International Business Aviation Council to obtain the Safety Management System  tool kit. The cost of the Tool Kit and associated material is $650 United States dollars for association members and $1200 United States dollars for non-members.

5. The above link will get you to the National Business Aviation Association's Safety Management System’s web site.

6. The above link will get you to the Federal Aviation Administration's InFO 11010 Safety Management Systems developments effective 04/11/11. The Federal Aviation Administration does not approve nor accept implementation of the Safety Management System.

7. The above link will get you to the Federal Aviation Administration's Safety Management System Advisory Circular 120-92A (56 pages) effective August 12, 2010.

8. The above link will get you to the United Kingdom’s ban on staff air travel for the United Kingdom’s Environment Agency.

9. The above link will get you to the National Business Aviation Association's Europe's Emissions Trading Scheme. A member id and password required to access this info.

9a.The above link will access the National Business Aviation Associations PowerPoint Presentation entitled "Carbon Emissions" sample costs are on page 14. A member id and password required to access this info.

10. The above link will get you to Conclin De Decker's pay per use carbon dioxide (CO2) calculator for the European Emissions Trading Scheme.

11. The above link will get you to the International Federation of Air Line Pilots Association that will permit you to subscribe to their Bulletins. You can also download the bulletins concerning implementation of Africa/China/Russia/Mongolia Reduced Vertical Separation Minima.

12. The above link will let you access the Russian Advisory Circular 11/11 October 20, 2011 which covers the implementation procedures  for Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States Reduced Vertical Separation Minima  on November 17, 2011.

13. The above link will permit you to check the operational status of all Aircraft Geometric Height Monitoring Elements  monitoring facilities.

14. The above link will let you view the EuroControl Reduced Vertical Separation Minima version 7.1 software changes summary.

15. The above link will access the Flight Safety Foundation article on Version 7.1 of the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II software.

16. The above link will let you read the Wikipedia articles on Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System  II including version 7.1 of the software.

17. The above link will take you to the graphics that depict the Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast coverage status of the 794 ground sites planned.

18. The above link will take you to the Garmin GDL-90 Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast transceiver web site.

19. The above link will let you view the Aircraft Owners and Pilot Association  article for Honeywell update to the FMZ-2000 Flight Management System for 600 older aircraft.

20. The above link will let you to view the New York Center’s Controller Pilot Data Link Communications  procedures Notices to Airmen.

20a.  The above link will give you access to read the ATC DATA LINK NEWS. This is a publication devoted to keeping you informed on Data Link happenings.

21. The above link will let you access the 80 Pilot and 180 Controller Data Link Message sets contained in the Global Operational Data Link Document  see Appendix A2 and A3.

21a. The above will let you access a sample check list designed to be used just prior to entry into Oceanic Airspace. It is the  February 13, 2012 North Atlantic Operations Bulletin 2012-024 and includes a Sample Expanded Oceanic Checklist.

22. The above link will permit you to obtain a copy of the latest International Federation of Air Line Pilots Association oceanic navigation errors bulletin.

23. The above link will let you read a Boeing article about Performance Based Navigation.

23a. The above link will let you access the Navigation Paradox article in Wikipedia which was originally written in 1964."The more accurately we navigate, the more likely we are to have a mid air collision."

24. The above link will permit you to read a Wikipedia summary of all four Global Navigation Satellite Systems.
24a. The above web site will permit you to view the training presentation on how to fill out the International Civil Aviation Organization Fight Plan 2012 .
25. The above web site will guide you on instructions on completing International Civil Aviation Organization flight plan 2012.

25a. The above link will take you to Eurocontrol’s Transponder Mode S Elementary and Enhanced Surveillance guide Frequently asked questions.
25aa.    The above link will get you a list of all acronyms used in the new version of the International Civil Aviation Organization Flight plan effective November 15, 2012.

25aaa.  The above link will give you a copy of the Federal Aviation Administrations FPL 2012 Quick Guide. 

26. The above link will access Wikipedia's information concerning Aero Peru Flight 603, October 2, 1996 accident with the loss of 70 passengers and crew.

27. The above link to the Federal Aviation Administrations Advisory Circular 91.70A, page 28 states plotting charts are required to be used for long range navigation when more than 725 nautical miles between ground based navigation aids.

28. The above link will reference 122.75 mega Hertz as the proper air-to-air frequency in the United States and southern Canada. It is found in Table 4-1-3.

29. The above link will access the Aviation Spectrum Recources, Inc. web site for Selective Calling  management information.

30. The above link will permit you to obtain a Selective Calling user manual.

31. The above link will permit you to view the YouTube Strategic Lateral Offset Procedure movie.
32. The above link will permit you to read the article concerning the Brazilian mid air collision between an Embraer Legacy 600 and a GOL Airlines Boeing 737-800 in Wikipedia.

33. The above link will let you down load a copy of the National Business Aviation Association Satellite Telephone Communications  procedures and telephone numbers for the North Atlantic by David Stohr.

33a.  The above link will permit you to access the Satellite Communications Voice Guidance information for use of your Satellite Telephone.

34. The above link will let you down load a copy of the “seven minute” revised loss of communications procedures for the European Region dated January 2002.

35. The above document will permit you to view International Civil Aviation Organization Document 4444 which contains the Oceanic Contingencies and diversions procedures.

36. The above link will permit you to access the United States of America Central
Intelligence Agency's World Fact Book.

37. The above link will let you view Jeppesen's World Geodetic Survey - 1984  country status list.

37a. The above link will let you view the European Aviation Safety Agency's 182 page Safety Assessment of Foreign Aircraft inspection guidelines.

37b. The above link will give you access to the actual Safety Assessment of Foreign Aircraft check list used by the inspector. 

38. The above link will give you access to an altimeter settings QNE/ QNH correction factor calculator.

39. The above link will assist you in purchasing a copy of the book "From Takeoff to Landing" by Olle Akerlind which is a discussion of Terminal and Enroute Procedures versus Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations.

40. The above link will take you to the Wikipedia article on Extended Operations.

41. This link will let you read the Aeronautical Information Publication for Kazahstan. It is in the English language.

42. This link will let you access a quick alphabetical reference guide to the Atlantic Orientation Chart text pages for chart number, panel number and top, center and bottom locations.See post dated June 29, 2011.

43. The above link will permit you to down load a copy of the “North Atlantic Operations and Airspace Manual Edition 2012" which is issued on behalf of the North Atlantic Systems Planning Group.
44. The above link will give you background on Laker Sky Train and Sir Freddy Laker.

45. The above link will get you a definition of the term “High Seas”. Oceans, seas, and waters outside of national jurisdiction are also referred to as the high seas or, in Latinmare liberum (meaning free seas).

46. The above link will permit you to view a graphic of the Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) airspace Strumble, Wales Height Monitoring Unit coverage area (Figure 11.3 at bottom of document).

47. The above link will let you view the Precision Area Navigation
 Temporary Guidance Leaflet #10 dated November 1, 2000.

48. The above link will permit you to view the Airborne Collision Avoidance System II Bulletin No. 6 entitled “Incorrect use of the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II traffic horizontal display”.

49. The above link will permit you to view a PowerPoint presentation about Aeronautical Radio, Incorporated  # 424 which defines the format and and content of navigation databases.

50. The above link will permit you to view the discussion concerning Eurocontrol Compliant Databases and the differences between Type 1 and Type 2 Letters of Authorization.
50a. The above link will permit you to view the International Federation of Airline Pilots Association's  web site and download the Briefing Leaflets concerning Africa Reduced Vertical Separation Minima Procedures, the Africa In Flight broadcast procedure and the Strategic Lateral Offset Procedure Leaflet.
50b. The above link will permit you to view the latest Federal Aviation Administration Information for Operators  bulletin dated May 13, 2011on the use of the iPad in the cockpit.
50c.   The above link will permit you to view the Honeywell Service Information Letter May 17, 2012, rev. 8, subject of some approach procedures that have been removed from Flight Management Systems data bases. 
50d.  The above link will permit you to view the Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular 91.70a titled Oceanic and International Operations dated August 2010 - A great source for information for pilots new to International Operations.
50e. This link will let you read Federal Aviation Regulation 91.227 about Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast  Out requirements.

This link will let you view some interesting question concerning your individual aircraft.

To be updated...
52.   The above link will permit you to down load a copy of the Jeppesen Introduction to Jeppesen Navigation Charts booklet which is a complete listing of all chart and approach plate legends and symbols.
53.  The above link will permit you to view the National Business Aviation Association's PowerPoint presentation on the European Emission Trading Scheme. You will need a National Business Aviation Association username and password to access this site.

54. The above link will permit you to access the Federal Aviation Administrations Advisory Circular 20-150 which can provide guidance to the approved use of your satellite telephone for supplying normal voice reports and requests to Air Traffic Control instead of using High Frequency Radio while in the North Atlantic.

55.   This link above will permit you to access Jeppesen's web site to determine the up to date currency date for all the Charts.

Friday, October 28, 2011

British Airways Pilot Recruitment Video 2011

British Airways Concorde

This is really a nice video which I liked. I can now look at it any time I want.

Tuesday, October 18, 2011

How Much Time Would You Let Pass After Loss of Communications Before Selecting Transponder Code 7600?

TWA Lockheed Constellation L-1049G with tip tanks

The subject of Loss of Communications Procedures is not an unusual one for discussion in the cockpit. In most discussions in which I took part, it was almost always related to and limited to total failure of the radio transceivers. In addition, it was assumed Instrument Meteorological Conditions were being experienced at the time of the failure.

In my more than 50 years of flying, I never gave any thought to the question of how long to wait until I select code 7600. This question was brought to mind by a story told by a fellow pilot. He was approaching Teterboro to land during a busy afternoon. ATC directed him to change frequencies to contact Teterboro Approach Control. Teterboro Approach was really busy and the he was unable to establish contact.

He said he just selected code 7600 on his transponder and was shortly thereafter in contact with a controller. I really liked this thoughtful approach and the initiative he used to solve the problem.

Loss of communications was an important factor in the mid-air collision in Brazil 4 years ago between an Embraer Legacy 600 and a GOL Airlines Boeing 737-800. (Both airplanes were brand new and had all the latest collision avoidance equipment installed. Both were in radar contact in Brazil's modern, up-to-date air traffic control system.) Yet, the collision occurred with the loss of 154 lives.

The loss of communications resulted from the pilots not receiving a correct change of frequency instruction. This is not an uncommon event for pilots. The Embraer pilots made numerous calls to re-establish radio contact over the next 57 minutes with no success . During this period of time the pilots did not change their transponder code to 7600. What period of time would you consider as a maximum before selecting code 7600?

Another significant factor in the Brazillian mid-air collision was the fact the Embraer pilots had turned off their transponder about and hour and fifteen minutes into their flight. As a result, the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS II) installed in both aircraft was not able to do its job. (TCAS II relies on an operating transponder to be installed and operating to function.) Had the Embraer pilots considered use of Loss of Communication Procedures earlier with the selection of code 7600, they probably would have recognized the transponder was turned off and turned it back on. This would than have permitted the TCAS II systems to provide Resolution Advisories to each pilot and prevent the accident from happening.

The main point of my post is to suggest to each of you to do some thinking about this aspect of Loss of Communications procedures. When are you going to select code 7600? After 3 minutes, 10 minutes or after 20 minutes have gone by?

Your comments are appreciated.

For additional information:

Tuesday, October 4, 2011

More Questions ...

Here are some interesting questions about your aircraft you should consider if you have not already done so...Updated October 17, 2012
What is the lowest altimeter setting capacity of each altimeter installed?

Does your aircraft flight recorder include your satellite telephone communications?

What units of measurement do each of your altimeters display? Inches of Mercury? Millibars? hectoPascals? Millimeters of Mercury?

What is a hectoPascal?

Is your aircraft equipped with a Wide Area Augmented System  Global Positioning System?

Is your aircraft certified under Part 25? or Part 23?

What is the lowest Pavement Classification Number number that your aircraft requires concerning runway strength?

Do you ever use reduced thrust power for takeoffs?

Who makes the choice of runways used for takeoffs and landings?

Who makes the choice of which instrument approach is used?

What is the impact on the your aircraft systems when using a QFE altimeter setting?

Is there an impact of using a QFE altimeter setting on the Enhanced Ground Proximity System  orTerrain and Awareness Warning System on your airplane?

What does the airplane flight manual say about Global Positioning System sensor use in non World Geodetic System-1984 countries?

Does it direct you to disable the Global Positioning Sensors?

Are you able to view the Global Positioning System calculated altitudes on your Flight Management System while in flight?

On what Flight Management System page are they available to view?

Have you ever compared the Global Positioning System calculated altitude to the barometric altimeters while in cruise flight at high altitudes or low altitudes?

How did they compare roughly?

How does your meters altimeter round off altitudes? To the nearest 10 feet? 40 feet? 100 feet? 10 meters? 40 meters? 100 meters or what?

When do you plan to add Traffic Collision Avoidance System II version 7.1 to your aircraft?

When do you plan to add Wide Area Augmentation System capability to your Global Positioning System receivers if you are not equipped with it now?

When do you plan to add Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast and Controller-Pilot Data Link Communications if you do not have it?

What is the cost of getting your aircraft equipped with Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast  and Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Contract for your aircraft?

What is the cost for Controller-Pilot Data Link Communications for your aircraft?

What does the Enhanced Ground Proximity Warning system  cost for your aircraft?

How many Satellite Based Navigation Systems exist or are under construction today?

How many Satellite Based Augmentation Systems  exist or are under construction today?

This post is written without the use of acronyms.  Did you find it easier to understand?  Please comment on this aspect of this post...Thanks!

Sunday, August 7, 2011

Kingwood Township Solar Panels Under Construction

The following appeared on the New JerseyNewsroom site at:

"NJ Solar Panels a waste of taxpayer money"

"Do you realize you pay the taxes on power bills to subsidize some Liberal Green renewable energy fantasy ? Just look at some simple numbers and you will see why. Cost of Solar Panel ~$7/Watt Typical cost of panel plus DC-AC power inverter~ $750 Cost to install (depends on Union/Non Union) guess $50 for 2 hours installation Total cost ~$800 Typical output power of 1 M square panel ~75-100W---about the power of one 100W light bulb---that’s it!!---and only when the Sun is shining bright onto it. Total estimated lifetime of solar panel~ 25-30Yrs Number of useful daylight hours~10 Number of Sunny days in NJ~94 Number of partly cloudy days~100 Number of cloudy days~171 http://www.worldfactsandfigures.com/weatherfacts/numbersunny_city_desc.php http://lwf.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/online/ccd/cldy.html Solar output power per year on sunny days=94X10X100=94KW/hr Solar output power per year on partly cloudy days=100X10X50=47KW/hr Solar output power per year on cloudy days=171X10X10=17.1KW/hr Total KW/hr per year=158.1 KW/hr per year Electric rates ~ $0.1 per KW/hr http://www.eia.doe.gov/cneaf/electricity/epm/table5_6_a.html Total savings per year of electricity=$15.81 So now to pay off the cost of the Solar panel you need $800/$15.81/yr=50years! Since the lifetime is only about 30yrs it never pays off So who pays for this? You do you suckers..."

If you want to read what Bill Gates thinks about Solar Panels, go to:

Wednesday, June 29, 2011

Atlantic Orientation Charts 1 & 2 Quick Reference Guide (Revised March 7, 2012)

  Quick Reference to Jeppesen Atlantic Orientation Charts 1/2
 Alphabetical List of Items Located by Chart/Panel Numbers 
  1. Contingencies - International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Document (Quad 4) 4444 - Chart 2, Panel #2, Bottom
  2. Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC) and Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS) Chart 1, Panel #11, Top
  3. Gander Oceanic Clearance VHF Frequencies – Chart 2, Panel #1, Middle
  4. Gander Oceanic Control Area Communication Frequencies – Chart 2, Panel #1, Bottom
  5. Hemispherical Cruising Altitude/Levels Morroco and Portugal – Chart 1, Panel #8, Bottom
  6. High Frequency (HF) Family of Frequencies - Chart 1, Panel #11, Middle
  7. Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (MNPS) General – Chart 1, Panel #9, Top
  8. Navigation Equipment Failures - Chart 1, Panel #9, Top
  9. No Oceanic Clearance Required Prior to Entering Oceanic Airspace (except for Shanwick) - Chart 2, Panel # 1, Bottom
  10. Navigation Equipment Failures - Chart 1, Panel #9,Middle
  11. NAVAID Information (Elevation/Variation) – Chart 2, Panel #10, Top/Middle
  12. Organized Track System (OTS) Effective Times - Chart 1, Panel #10, Middle
  13. Organized Track System (OTS) Message Track Message Identifier (TMI) – Chart 2, Panel #1, Bottom
  14. Position Reporting Format - Chart 1, Panel #4, Middle/Bottom and Chart 2, Panel #6, Top/Middle
  15. Radio Communications Failure/Use of Satellite Telephone (SATCOM) – Chart 1, Panel #11, Top
  16. Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) - Chart 1, Panel #9, Middle
  17. Reykjavik Oceanic Control Areas (OCA) Procedures – Chart 2, Panel #1, Top
  18. Selective Calling (SELCAL) Procedures – Chart 2, Panel #2, Middle
  19. Should not hold if no oceanic clearance - Chart 2, Panel 1, Bottom
  20. Special Arrangements for NON-RVSM Approved Aircraft – Chart 1, Panel #10, Top
  21. Special Routes (Blue Spruce Routes) - Chart 1, Panel # 9, Bottom
  22. Standard Air-Ground Message Types and Formats – Chart 2, Panel 2, Top
  23. Strategic Lateral Offset Procedure (“Randomness is good!”) – Chart 1, Panel #9, Middle
  24. Satellite Telephone Communications (SATCOM) Procedures/Phone Numbers Chart 1, Chart 1, Panel #11, Top
  25. Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS) – Chart #1, Panel #9, Bottom
  26. Transponder Operation Procedures – Chart 2, Panel #2, Middle
  27. True Mach Number Technique - Chart 1, Panel #10, Bottom
  28. Very High Frequency (VHF) Oceanic Monitoring - Chart 2, Panel #1, Middle
  29. Weather Deviation Procedures – Chart 2, Panel #2, Middle
  30. Weather Reporting - Chart 2, Panel #2, Top