Monday, November 21, 2011

GPS versus LightSquared

           GPS              versus        logo
Most of you should be aware by now there exists controversy between the company known as LightSquared and the present users of the Global Positioning System (GPS) system. LightSquared is a company planning to provide a nationwide 4G-LTE open wireless super high speed broadband network for access to the Internet. The service will fill the gaps in present wireless (WIFI) coverage utilizing Inmarsat satellites built by Boeing as well as 40,000 dedicated ground stations.

The United States now ranks 18th among the countries in making internet connections available to its citizens.  LightSquared is aiming its services to improve the current situation and is currently before the Federal Communications Commissions (FCC) in an effort to approve its use of the frequencies that are close to the frequencies presently used by the GPS receivers.

Opposition to LightSquared plans have risen from the fact that their signals (more than a billion times stronger than the GPS and GLONSS signals) will interfere with the reception of GPS signals by some of the present receivers in use today. The opposition has taken the form of political concerns issued by members of congress as well as testimony and letters to the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) suggesting a denial.

Although most GPS related magazines have supported this denial a paper by JAVAD GNSS will provide a counter point to some of the arguments for denial.

The kinds of GPS receivers most likely to be affected are those used by surveyors for high accuracy measurements that use the Real Time Kinematic (RTK) technique which will result in an accuracy of plus or minus one centimeter.

When the authorities made the decision to accept the lowest powered GPS signals to be utilized, consideration should have been given to the possibility of the ramifications of this decision.  The very low power of the GPS signals makes them vulnerable to interference as well as being easily jammed. When the latest version of the Block III satellites are launched beginning in 2014, the signal strength will be increased by a factor of three.

However, as the signals to be used in LightSquared's service are more than a billion times stronger than the GPS signals, the increased power of the Block III satellites will have little effect.

As a result of recognizing the benefits that LightSquared will offer users of the internet, I have taken the position that LightSquared's efforts should be supported even though some of the present GPS receivers will have to be modified. This modification will cost owners of the affected units as little as $8 to as much as $8,000.  The higher cost is in those units used for high accuracy receivers.

It appears that LightSquared's signals will also affect the Russian Glonass system. but not as seriously. On the other hand, the impact on Galileo will be worse. So far, I have not read if they will affect China's Compass satellite navigation system or not.

The Federal Communications Commission has a difficult decision to make. As far as I know, there is no time line to let us know when the decision will be made.  The most recent technical report to the FCC confirms LightSquared signals interfere with GPS signals.   For a really interesting source of information on this issue, both pro and con, read the Forbes Magazine article as well as the comments to the story that was posted on December 21, 2011. The story will appear in the January 12, 2012 issue of Forbes Magazine.  Stay tuned:
See: LightSquared: GPS Community Has No Legal Gripe
Latest LightSquared comments from Aviation International News Alerts
...updated  Sunday, January 1, 2012











Wednesday, November 2, 2011

50+ Web Site Addresses for International Flight Operations

(updated again May 19, 2013 to add URL A. )
(updated January 18, 2013 to update all the links and remove acronyms)



Here are 50+ useful acronym free “hot link clickable” Uniform Resource Locators which are web page addresses, regarding International flight operations:

http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/avs/offices/afs/afs400/afs470/media/NAT.pdf
A.  The above link will permit you to access a brand new really rich source of Information concerning International Flight Operations provided by the Federal Aviation Administration. 

1. The above link will get you to the GPS World Magazine's web site. A great resource to obtain good Global Positioning Systems information.

http://www.faa.gov/air_traffic/publications/atpubs/aip/aip_w_amds_1-3_dtd_7-24-14.pdf
1a. The above link will let you view the 1,604 page United States Aeronautical Information Publication.

2. The above link will get you to a copy of the United States Department of Homeland Security "Customs and Border Patrol  Private Air Advance Passenger Information System  Guide".

https://eapis.cbp.dhs.gov
2a. The above link will let you access the Customs and Border Patrol to create an electronic Advanced Passenger Information System list of everyone on board your aircraft (both passengers and crew) required to be sent one hour prior to arrival or departure from the United States.

3. The above link will get you to a Danish web site that will permit you to down load digital copies at no cost of all 18 International Civil Aviation Organization Annexes as well as  Document 4444 at no cost and these documents are searchable using the find function of your computer applications.

4. The above link will access the International Business Aviation Council to obtain the Safety Management System  tool kit. The cost of the Tool Kit and associated material is $650 United States dollars for association members and $1200 United States dollars for non-members.

5. The above link will get you to the National Business Aviation Association's Safety Management System’s web site.

6. The above link will get you to the Federal Aviation Administration's InFO 11010 Safety Management Systems developments effective 04/11/11. The Federal Aviation Administration does not approve nor accept implementation of the Safety Management System.

7. The above link will get you to the Federal Aviation Administration's Safety Management System Advisory Circular 120-92A (56 pages) effective August 12, 2010.

8. The above link will get you to the United Kingdom’s ban on staff air travel for the United Kingdom’s Environment Agency.

9. The above link will get you to the National Business Aviation Association's Europe's Emissions Trading Scheme. A member id and password required to access this info.



9a.The above link will access the National Business Aviation Associations PowerPoint Presentation entitled "Carbon Emissions" sample costs are on page 14. A member id and password required to access this info.

10. The above link will get you to Conclin De Decker's pay per use carbon dioxide (CO2) calculator for the European Emissions Trading Scheme.

11. The above link will get you to the International Federation of Air Line Pilots Association that will permit you to subscribe to their Bulletins. You can also download the bulletins concerning implementation of Africa/China/Russia/Mongolia Reduced Vertical Separation Minima.

12. The above link will let you access the Russian Advisory Circular 11/11 October 20, 2011 which covers the implementation procedures  for Russia and the Commonwealth of Independent States Reduced Vertical Separation Minima  on November 17, 2011.

13. The above link will permit you to check the operational status of all Aircraft Geometric Height Monitoring Elements  monitoring facilities.

14. The above link will let you view the EuroControl Reduced Vertical Separation Minima version 7.1 software changes summary.

15. The above link will access the Flight Safety Foundation article on Version 7.1 of the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II software.

16. The above link will let you read the Wikipedia articles on Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System  II including version 7.1 of the software.

17. The above link will take you to the graphics that depict the Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast coverage status of the 794 ground sites planned.

18. The above link will take you to the Garmin GDL-90 Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast transceiver web site.

19. The above link will let you view the Aircraft Owners and Pilot Association  article for Honeywell update to the FMZ-2000 Flight Management System for 600 older aircraft.

20. The above link will let you to view the New York Center’s Controller Pilot Data Link Communications  procedures Notices to Airmen.

20a.  The above link will give you access to read the ATC DATA LINK NEWS. This is a publication devoted to keeping you informed on Data Link happenings.

21. The above link will let you access the 80 Pilot and 180 Controller Data Link Message sets contained in the Global Operational Data Link Document  see Appendix A2 and A3.

21a. The above will let you access a sample check list designed to be used just prior to entry into Oceanic Airspace. It is the  February 13, 2012 North Atlantic Operations Bulletin 2012-024 and includes a Sample Expanded Oceanic Checklist.

22. The above link will permit you to obtain a copy of the latest International Federation of Air Line Pilots Association oceanic navigation errors bulletin.

23. The above link will let you read a Boeing article about Performance Based Navigation.

23a. The above link will let you access the Navigation Paradox article in Wikipedia which was originally written in 1964."The more accurately we navigate, the more likely we are to have a mid air collision."

24. The above link will permit you to read a Wikipedia summary of all four Global Navigation Satellite Systems.
24a. The above web site will permit you to view the training presentation on how to fill out the International Civil Aviation Organization Fight Plan 2012 .
25. The above web site will guide you on instructions on completing International Civil Aviation Organization flight plan 2012.

25a. The above link will take you to Eurocontrol’s Transponder Mode S Elementary and Enhanced Surveillance guide Frequently asked questions.
25aa.    The above link will get you a list of all acronyms used in the new version of the International Civil Aviation Organization Flight plan effective November 15, 2012.

http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/enroute/flight_plan_filing/general/icao_2012/media/FPL%20Brochure%20(version%202).pdf
25aaa.  The above link will give you a copy of the Federal Aviation Administrations FPL 2012 Quick Guide. 

26. The above link will access Wikipedia's information concerning Aero Peru Flight 603, October 2, 1996 accident with the loss of 70 passengers and crew.

27. The above link to the Federal Aviation Administrations Advisory Circular 91.70A, page 28 states plotting charts are required to be used for long range navigation when more than 725 nautical miles between ground based navigation aids.

28. The above link will reference 122.75 mega Hertz as the proper air-to-air frequency in the United States and southern Canada. It is found in Table 4-1-3.

29. The above link will access the Aviation Spectrum Recources, Inc. web site for Selective Calling  management information.

30. The above link will permit you to obtain a Selective Calling user manual.

31. The above link will permit you to view the YouTube Strategic Lateral Offset Procedure movie.
32. The above link will permit you to read the article concerning the Brazilian mid air collision between an Embraer Legacy 600 and a GOL Airlines Boeing 737-800 in Wikipedia.

33. The above link will let you down load a copy of the National Business Aviation Association Satellite Telephone Communications  procedures and telephone numbers for the North Atlantic by David Stohr.

http://www.faa.gov/about/office_org/headquarters_offices/ato/service_units/enroute/oceanic/documents/IPACG/IPACG36/WP10SATVOICE_Guidance_Material_Att_B.pdf
33a.  The above link will permit you to access the Satellite Communications Voice Guidance information for use of your Satellite Telephone.

34. The above link will let you down load a copy of the “seven minute” revised loss of communications procedures for the European Region dated January 2002.

35. The above document will permit you to view International Civil Aviation Organization Document 4444 which contains the Oceanic Contingencies and diversions procedures.

36. The above link will permit you to access the United States of America Central
Intelligence Agency's World Fact Book.

37. The above link will let you view Jeppesen's World Geodetic Survey - 1984  country status list.

http://caa.gateway.bg/upload/docs/SAFA_Guidance_July_2009.pdf
37a. The above link will let you view the European Aviation Safety Agency's 182 page Safety Assessment of Foreign Aircraft inspection guidelines.

http://www.casolution.com/RampChecklist.pdf
37b. The above link will give you access to the actual Safety Assessment of Foreign Aircraft check list used by the inspector. 

38. The above link will give you access to an altimeter settings QNE/ QNH correction factor calculator.

39. The above link will assist you in purchasing a copy of the book "From Takeoff to Landing" by Olle Akerlind which is a discussion of Terminal and Enroute Procedures versus Procedures for Air Navigation Services - Aircraft Operations.

40. The above link will take you to the Wikipedia article on Extended Operations.

41. This link will let you read the Aeronautical Information Publication for Kazahstan. It is in the English language.

42. This link will let you access a quick alphabetical reference guide to the Atlantic Orientation Chart text pages for chart number, panel number and top, center and bottom locations.See post dated June 29, 2011.

43. The above link will permit you to down load a copy of the “North Atlantic Operations and Airspace Manual Edition 2012" which is issued on behalf of the North Atlantic Systems Planning Group.
44. The above link will give you background on Laker Sky Train and Sir Freddy Laker.

45. The above link will get you a definition of the term “High Seas”. Oceans, seas, and waters outside of national jurisdiction are also referred to as the high seas or, in Latinmare liberum (meaning free seas).

46. The above link will permit you to view a graphic of the Reduced Vertical Separation Minima (RVSM) airspace Strumble, Wales Height Monitoring Unit coverage area (Figure 11.3 at bottom of document).

47. The above link will let you view the Precision Area Navigation
 Temporary Guidance Leaflet #10 dated November 1, 2000.

48. The above link will permit you to view the Airborne Collision Avoidance System II Bulletin No. 6 entitled “Incorrect use of the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System II traffic horizontal display”.

49. The above link will permit you to view a PowerPoint presentation about Aeronautical Radio, Incorporated  # 424 which defines the format and and content of navigation databases.

50. The above link will permit you to view the discussion concerning Eurocontrol Compliant Databases and the differences between Type 1 and Type 2 Letters of Authorization.
50a. The above link will permit you to view the International Federation of Airline Pilots Association's  web site and download the Briefing Leaflets concerning Africa Reduced Vertical Separation Minima Procedures, the Africa In Flight broadcast procedure and the Strategic Lateral Offset Procedure Leaflet.
50b. The above link will permit you to view the latest Federal Aviation Administration Information for Operators  bulletin dated May 13, 2011on the use of the iPad in the cockpit.
50c.   The above link will permit you to view the Honeywell Service Information Letter May 17, 2012, rev. 8, subject of some approach procedures that have been removed from Flight Management Systems data bases. 
50d.  The above link will permit you to view the Federal Aviation Administration Advisory Circular 91.70a titled Oceanic and International Operations dated August 2010 - A great source for information for pilots new to International Operations.
50e. This link will let you read Federal Aviation Regulation 91.227 about Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast  Out requirements.

This link will let you view some interesting question concerning your individual aircraft.


To be updated...
52.   The above link will permit you to down load a copy of the Jeppesen Introduction to Jeppesen Navigation Charts booklet which is a complete listing of all chart and approach plate legends and symbols.
 http://www.nbaa.org/member/events/ioc/2010/presentations/Carbon-Emissions.pdf?CFID=708035&CFTOKEN=36998988
53.  The above link will permit you to view the National Business Aviation Association's PowerPoint presentation on the European Emission Trading Scheme. You will need a National Business Aviation Association username and password to access this site.

http://www.faa.gov/documentLibrary/media/Advisory_Circular/AC%2020-150A.pdf
54. The above link will permit you to access the Federal Aviation Administrations Advisory Circular 20-150 which can provide guidance to the approved use of your satellite telephone for supplying normal voice reports and requests to Air Traffic Control instead of using High Frequency Radio while in the North Atlantic.

http://jeppesen.com/download/mart/enroute_currency.pdf
55.   This link above will permit you to access Jeppesen's web site to determine the up to date currency date for all the Charts.