Thursday, May 26, 2011

National Business Aviation Association - Good Questions/Answers/Citations Concerning International Operations

102 Good International Operations Questions/Answers/Citations From the NBAA

1. When do both pilots in the aircraft have to be type rated in the aircraft?
When the aircraft is certified with a minimum crew of two, or as directed by listing authority.
Annex 1, Chapter 2, Page 2, Paragraph a, c

2. Where there is a filed flight plan indicating a change in altitude at a specified point, in lieu of specific ATC instructions does the crew of an aircraft change altitude to conform to the filed flight plan?
In normal operations including oceanic airspace the answer is no. Crews are expected to fly the coordinated clearance and not the filed flight plan. No climb should be made without a clearance. Absent an emergency or TCAS RA comply with clearance
14CFR 91.123, ICAO Doc# 4444, Para. 4.5

3. When do I change altitude and routing in the case of lost communication in international airspace?
In the case of lost communications follow the published lost comm procedure for that country or oceanic region. In lieu of specific lost comm procedures consideration should be given to following ICAO Lost Comm procedures.
ICAO Doc# 4444, Para. 15.3

4. Do Tokyo/Fukuoka Area Control Centers publish 6 digit short codes for SATCOM use?
No, but the Public Switched Telephone Numbers can be found in the Japanese AIP. Air Traffic Flow Management 24-hr number: 092-608- 8870.
Japanese AIP, Enroute section, Chapter 1.9, Paragraph 1.3

5. Is there a requirement to be ACAS II equipped when operating in South America?
Commercial operators: Yes, if greater than 19 Passengers and 5700kg, Annex 6, Part 1, Paragraph 6.18.2 GA operators, Yes, only if greater than 30 Passengers or 15,000kg.
Annex 6, Part 2, Paragraph 3.6.10

6. What considerations exist when shooting an approach at an airport such as Thule Greenland, which is at 76 degrees north latitude?
Ground based navigation facilities are reference to True North vice Magnetic North. Aircraft FMC and Navigation displays need to be re- configured to allow for IFR operations. This is also correct for the Canadian Northern Domestic Airspace.
Canadian AIM Rules of the Air and Air Traffic Services Section 2.0 Para. 2.2.1

7. Are there any publications that outline the problems associated with operating in countries that are not WGS 84 compliant and how that affects FMS approach procedures?
Several FAA, EASA and ICAO documents require that non WGS- 84 data not be used for approaches with GNSS guidance. Your approved Flight Manual and OEM recommendations are the best place to look for procedures on how to comply with these requirements.
FAA Advisory Circular 90-94 Para.3b and
AC 20-138B. ICAO Annex 10, Vol. 1, Chap. 3.Para., AMC 20-27 Para 5.3

8. When entering/exiting oceanic airspaces are your equired to fly over a designated entry/exit point?
Your coordinated oceanic crossing clearance must always show entry  and exit of oceanic air space over a designated Oceanic Entry/Exit Point (OEP). In actual flight operations, tactical route clearances may be given by an Air Route Traffic Control Center that could bypass the OEP. In this case this is not a problem. Remember that separation between aircraft is established at the entry point and in order to maintain those separations crews must adhere to the coordinated oceanic crossing clearance.
PANS-ATM Chap. 15, Page 15-7 Para.

9. What takes precedent, ICAO documents (PANS, SARPS, Regional Supplementary Procedures) or commercially available products?
ICAO publications and national regulations always take precedence over any commercially available products. The commercial products take their information from these documents and others that may be produced by an ICAO region; however there are some times errors when this information is transcribed. If you want the unadulterated information always go to the source documents

10. Does importing your aircraft into the European Union relieve you of Cabotage considerations?
No. Import status is primarily concerned with tax status not Cabotage activity. For example; in the UK a VAT tax is added to the importation fees.
See the EU website www.Europa.EU

11. When flying from the U.S. to St. Thomas do both pilots have to be type rated?
From the aspect of arrival and destination operations, No. 14CFR 61.55 describes SIC Type ratings. However, once in airspace over the High Seas, Yes both pilots are required to be Type rated. This can be further complicated if an enroute divert is required to a foreign country. This county’s AIP would apply.

12.What is the purpose of Strategic Lateral Offset and where may it be utilized?
SLOP is designed to reduce lateral overlap of aircraft. It should be utilized to keep aircraft from passing directly above or below other aircraft.
PANS-ATM Chap. 15, Para. 15.2.4 Note#3  (See my post dated January 26,2010 "Randomness is good!")

13. Is there a prescribed contingency procedure for position reporting after an aircraft has offset 15 nautical miles from track (course) centerline?
No specific procedures address this issue. Best practice recommendation would be to obtain a new or revised clearance at the earliest possible time.
PANS-ATM Chap. 15, Para.

14. Is there a web site where I can access ICAO documents?
Yes, Two specific ones: www.ICAO.Int/ICAO/EN/M_Publications.HTML HTTP://DCAA.SLV.DK:8000/ICAODOCS These listed resources may not be current with the latest amendments and changes. Be sure to review these resources for currency before use.

15. When coordinating your oceanic clearance with Shanwick via ORCA are you required to contact Shanwick and provide a voice read back?
No. Unless there is any doubt as to the clearance or downlink capability. In such a case, revert to voice communication.
NAT Operations Bulletin 2010-6 18MAR04

16. How do you determine if a country uses PANS OPS criteria in promulgating straight in approaches and TERPS for promulgating circling procedures?
The specific county’s AIP will explain the design criteria used. Look in the “General” section and the “Aerodrome” sections for confirmation. Jeppesen provides this information in the ATC Section of the J Aids. Look up the country in the Rules and Procedures part and specifically under the Procedures Limitations and Options heading.

17. If you lose communication with air traffic control should you follow your last clearance or comply with published lost communications procedures?
You should follow the published lost communications procedures published in the AIP for the country or the regional supplementary procedures for the region you are flying in. You may also check the Jeppesen Emergency Section to ascertain lost communications procedures if no other resources are available. If no published procedures can be determined consideration should be given to following ICAO lost communication procedures found in
PANS-ATM Chapter 15 Para. 15.3

18. What constitutes a lost communications situation?
When an aircraft station fails to establish contact with the aeronautical station on the designated frequency, it shall attempt to establish contact on another frequency appropriate to the route. If this attempt fails, the aircraft station shall attempt to establish communication with other aircraft or other aeronautical stations on frequencies appropriate to the route. In addition, an aircraft operating within a network shall monitor the appropriate VHF frequency for calls from nearby aircraft. If these attempts fail transmit in the blind. General rules, which are applicable in the event of communication system failure are contained in Annex 2 to the convention.
Annex 10, Volume 2, Para 5.2,2,7

19. Is the operational test of SATCOM for waypoint position (in the NAT) reporting still in place?
No, the operational test has ended. Final approval, by ICAO, to SATCOM voice for routine communications in the North Atlantic Region is pending.

20. When indicating life raft capacity on an ICAO flight plan do I list actual or overflow capacity?
Actual capacity.
PANS-ATM, Appendix 2, Page A-12

21. How does my company participate in the visa waiver program?
Must have a signed agreement from the Department of Homeland Security. Information on application to participate in the Visa Waiver Program is available from the NBAA Operations Section or through service providers.

22. Is it an issue for two pilots older than the age of 60 to fly together on a Part 91 flight internationally?
This should not be a problem for Part 91 operations as this applies to commercial operations only. FAA operations under Part 135 or 121 would fall under this definition. Keep in mind that some countries may interpret commercial operations differently than ICAO and may still enforce the age 60 standard.
ICAO Annex 1, Chapter 2, Para.

23. If departing a location, which is a non-radar environment, and flying in Class II navigation airspace do I climb at an assigned Mach number or aircraft climb profile?
When departing from an airport and climbing directly into Class II Navigation Airspace climb at any assigned speed or if no speed is assigned, use the climb profile. The requirement to maintain assigned Mach number in a climb or descent is generally applied in the enroute segment of flight in a non-surveillance environment where longitudinal separation must be maintained by strict adherence to the assigned Mach number.
PANS-ATM Chap. 6, Para. 6.3.1

24. Is a Part 91 aircraft required to have redundant long-range communications systems when conducting over water flights?
14 CFR 91.511a.Radio communication equipment appropriate to the facilities to be used and able to transmit to, and receive from, at least one communication facility from any place along the route:
1. Two transmitters 2. Two microphones 3. Two headsets or one headset and one speaker 4. Two independent receivers.
d.Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section, when both VHF and HF communications equipment are required for the route and the airplane has two VHF transmitters and two VHF receivers for communications, only one HF transmitter and one HF receiver is required for communications
The answer comes down to a point of interpretation. What exactly is meant by the phrase "where both VHF and HF are required"? If that means you must have both VHF and HF coverage throughout the entire route then on a direct crossing you would need two HFs. If it means that you do not need VHF coverage along the entire route then you only need one. On a direct crossing you have about 200 miles of VHF, about 1300 miles of no VHF coverage and then another 200 miles of VHF coverage.

25. When operating in the U.K. the arrival ATIS used the terminology “wet, wet, wet” and other times the terminology was “damp, damp, damp”. What does this mean and where can I find an explanation?
“Damp”= Surface shows a change of color, no surface film. “Wet”=Soaked but, no significant patches of standing water. The repetition (3 times) references the first, middle and last third of the runway. United Kingdom’s AIP, AD 1.1.1 General Conditions

26. Must pilots be trained in order to participate on an international trip?
For Part 91/GA operations, no specific training is required. Part 91 operators are required to be knowledgeable and how that knowledge is attained is their prerogative. As a Part135/Commercial operator, require specific navigation training and procedure training in accordance with their approved training manual.
FAA Order 8900.1 Vol.4, Chap.2, Sect. 2, Para. 4-24

27. Must pilots have a check ride within the last 12 months to be considered current for international operations?
The PIC is responsible for ensuring the currency of the crew. The state of registry will mandate the specific requirements. This should be sufficient for ICAO.
ICAO Annex 6, Part II, Para.

28. What are the medical license requirements for operating internationally?
ICAO Annex 1 states that if a pilot has a commercial rating or an ATP on their pilot license they must be in possession of a valid ICAO 1st class medical. For a U.S. operator that means a valid FAA 1st class
Questions For 2011 IOC
medical. Remember ICAO medicals will expire on the date of exam vice the FAA expiration at the end-of-month.

29. Where and how do you check for RVSM aircraft monitoring compliant for RVSM operations in Europe?
Eurocontrol Website: Latest results from HMU’s in Europe can be found here. Search on your registered operator and specific registration number.

30. What information should be reported as the next (third waypoint mentioned) waypoint when passing a position report?
Ensuing significant point name only. This is true if the point is compulsory or non-compulsory.
PANS-ATM Chap.4, Para.

31. Which Oceanic Control Agencies have the ability to pass the crossing clearance via data link in the North Atlantic Region?
via CPDLC: Gander OCA, Shanwick OCA, Reykjavik OCA, BODO OCA, NEW York OCA, Santa Maria OCA.
GOLD Document, 14JUN10
ORCA via VHF Datalink: Gander OCA, Shanwick OCA, Santa Maria OCA
NAT Operations Bulletins #5,#6,#8 124

32. Short of calling a service provider how do you determine which countries would require an over flight permit?
AIP’s from the overflown countries. Search for “Corporate Aircraft Constraints” Jeppeson provides excerpts from these documents in the “Entry Requirements” section.

33. Europe requires pilots to be trained on RVSM, is this just a one time training requirement or is there a recurrent requirement?
Initial and Recurrent training is required for European ops.
JAA Temporary Guidance Leaflet #6 Rev1, Appendix 4

34. What does the letter J included in block 10 of the ICAO flight mean and what does DAT/SVM in block 18 mean when J is included in block 10?
“J” indicates Datalink onboard and approved for operation. “DAT/SVM” indicates the modes of communication for Datalink operations. In this example Satellite/VHF/SSR Mode S link are available and approved.
PANS-ATM Appdx.2, Page A3-24

35. How do you determine which countries/regions/airspaces allow the use of Strategic Lateral Offset Procedure, SLOP?
The Aeronautical Information Publication for a particular country will detail how procedures are applied inside that country’s airspace. ICAO Document #4444, Chapter 15, Para 15.2.4 indicates that SLOP can be applied to enroute Oceanic and remote continental operations. (See my post dated January 26,2010 "Randomness is good!")

36. On a conventional SID/STAR/Approach, are the points defining the procedures fly over or fly by points?
The points defining a conventional STAR or SID are Fly Over points. Based on conventional procedure design you would be expected to fly to the point and then start a maneuver. In those case where a lead radial of DME is utilized a Fly-by point could be utilized.

37. What does “uncategorized ILS approach to non-instrument runway” mean when published on a PANS OPS designed approach?
It is an uncategorized ILS Approach because it is to a non-precision instrumented runway, which is defined as an instrument runway served by visual aids and a non-visual aid providing at least directional guidance adequate for a straight in approach. For an ILS approach to be categorized it must be to a Precision approach runway, which is defined as an instrument runway served by ILS and/or MLS and visual aids intended for operations with a decision height not lower than 200 feet and either a visibility not less than 800 meters or a runway visual range not less than 550 meters.
Annex 14

38. How do I locate RVSM monitoring flight information on the FAA web site?
The North American Approvals Registry and Monitor Organization, NARARMO. link is:
WWW.TC.FAA.Gov/ACT500/NIAAB/RVSM/Approvals.ASP Look under International General Aviation “IGA”.

39. What are the requirements for carrying and using an oceanic plotting chart?
There is no specific regulatory requirement for plotting charts. However, AC 91-70A Para 3.6 Item (6) state the FAA requires crews to use a plotting chart to provide a visual presentation of the intended route. Item (7) states the plotting chart must include, at a minimum:
o The route of the currently effective ATC clearance; o Clearly depicted waypoints using standardized symbology; and o Ten-minute plotted positions after passing each oceanic
waypoint, including coordinates, time, and graphic depictions of all ETPs.

40. How many aircraft within a fleet must have completed a RVSM monitoring flight to satisfy the European requirement?
Group 1 approved and indicates data indicates RVSM compliant, o 2 Aircraft per fleet
Group 2 approved with insufficient data or Revs compliance, o 60% or airframes
Non group aircraft, 100% of airframes The State of the Operator that has issued an RVSM approval to an operator shall establish a requirement which ensures that a minimum of two aeroplanes of each aircraft type grouping of the operator have their height-keeping performance monitored, at least once every two years or within intervals of 1,000 flight hours per aeroplane, monitoring of that aeroplane shall be accomplished within the specified period.
ICAO Annex 6, Part I, Para. 7.2.7, Part II Para.

41. What is a Journey Log Book?
A Journey Log Book shall be maintained in respect of every aircraft engaged in international navigation. In this log shall be entered particulars of the aircraft, crew and each journey. Recommended items are aeroplane nationality, registration, date, crew names and duty assignments, departure and arrival times and points, purpose and observations of the flight, PIC signature.
ICAO Article 29, 34 ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, Paragraph 11.4 ICAO Annex 6, Part 2, Paragraph 2.8.2

42. How does a U.S. operator satisfy the requirement for a Journey Log Book according to the FAA?
The term logbook in this context means a navigation log and/or plotting chart that may be kept in the form of electronic data. This
record should be maintained for 6 calendar-months following the flight.
FAA Order 8900.1 Vol 4, Chap. 12, Para. 4-1299 c

43. How do I determine if a country is WGS 84 compliant?
The specific country’s AIP will list this information. An FAA approved source for this information may be found at:

44. What is the difference between the RNAV Specification and the RNP Specification for airspaces based on Performance Based Navigation?
RNAV specifies navigation accuracy only. RNP specifies navigation accuracy, alerting and monitoring
ICAO Doc# 9613, “Executive Summary”

45. How is the difference between indicated and true Mach determined?
There should be a table or chart in your AFM, which will allow you to compute the correction factor to be applied.

46. When are passengers entering the United States on a Part 91 flight required to have a visa?
US Citizens do not require a visa. Non-US citizens always require a visa unless the company that operates the aircraft is a participant in the visa waiver program and the passenger is a resident of a country that is listed on the approved list by CBP. The Visa Waiver Program (VWP) and The Electronic System for Travel Authorization (ESTA) is what we are speaking of here. Frequently Asked Questions about the Visa Waiver Program and the Electronic System for Travel Authorization

47. Are crew members who are not U.S. citizens but have a green card required to have a visa for entry into the U.S. on the aircraft they are flying?
An Alien Registration Card aka Green Card is proof of Permanent US Residence so a US visa is not required and they may enter and depart the US with their passport and ARC.

48. What is the meaning of listing airport elevation in hPa on some Jeppesen approach plates?
it is just another way of providing field elevation. There is a table that provides a conversion of hPa to feet. In reality it is the difference between a QNH and a QFE altimeter setting in hPa at an airport.
Jeppesen Introduction Section, Page #103

49. Are there fuel remaining requirements from and Equal Time Point to the diversion airport?
There are no regulatory requirements for fuel remaining at ETP of oceanic/remote diversion airports. Commercial operations or Extended Range (ETOPS) do have specific planning requirements.
AC 91-70a and AC 120-42b, UK CAP 513

50. What are the requirements to become approved for RNP-4?
Long-range navigation systems must be capable of RNP-4 navigation, meaning the systems must meet the 4 NM accuracy requirement, provide alerting and monitoring for the LOA/OpSpec to be issued.
PBN-BASED RNP 4 JOB AID, 5/6/09 FAA Order 8400.33, 9/15/05

51. Where in the world does RNP 4 airspace exist?
RNP-4 is used in support of 30/30NM separation in the SOPAC. FAA Order 8400.33, 9/15/05

52. Does a Part 91 operator require a LOA or specific training to conduct operations in the Polar region?
No LOA or specific training is required for a Part 91 operator to conduct Polar operators. However, specific navigation authorization is required for commercial operators.
FAA Order 8900.1 Vol.4, Chap.1, Sec.2, Para 4-24

53.Where in Annex 6 does it state that an ELT must operate on 406 MHz?
ICAO does not have a requirement for a specific ELT transmitter. Annex 6 describes how many and if automatic or not, Annex 10 describes specifications for the actual transmitter. An individual
country’s AIP will state the requirement for Either 121.5 or 406MHz transmitters.
ICAO Annex 6, Part I, Para. 2.4.12 ICAO Annex 10 Volume III, Part II, Chapter 5.

54.Do the North Atlantic Region lost communications procedures apply in the WATRS Plus airspace?
Yes, the Western Atlantic Area is still a part of the North Atlantic Region

55. Where would you look for the route information if cleared on the following clearance in Canadian Airspace, FOXXE N26A SPOTE N28A MT N32A SSM?
This is a combination of three different North American Routes. The route information is published in the FAA’s Northeast Airport and Facilities Directory or the Canadian Flight Supplement. They are also published in the Jeppesen Atlantic Airway manual Enroute Section.

56. Is TCAS II with software change 7 a part of the required equipment for operating in RVSM airspace?
No. TCAS/ACAS equipage requirements are a function of what country’s airspace you are operating in.
AC 91-85, FAA Order 8900.1 Vol.4, Chap.10, Sec.12 ICAO Document #9574.

57. Is it possible to do CPDLC with AFIS?
No. These are two separate and distinct communication protocols.
Global Operational Datalink Document (GOLD), Chap.3, Para 3.1

58. Can I pass position reports via AFIS?
No, it is not a SARPS compliant system.

59. Are there still RVSM transition areas in existence?
Yes. For example RVSM transition airspace is used exiting the NAT into Europe.

60. When accomplishing a position assurance check FMS position should be checked against what navigation sources?
Ground Based NAVID such as a VOR/DME or a RADAR position plot from ATC.
AC91-70a, Chap.10 and NAT Doc. 007 Para. 8.4.9

61. Is the FAA first class medical valid for 12 months, if under the age of 40 in international operations?
Yes, this is correct, for a commercial pilot or a pilot holding an airline transport license the medical is valid for 12 months from the date of the medical examination.
ICAO Annex 1, Amdt#168 Para

62. Where do I look for specific lost communications procedures for individual States?
Country specific procedures can be found in the Aeronautical Information Publication for that country. Jeppeson reprints
portions of these documents for easy reference in the “Emergency” section.

63. If an aircraft is registered in the Isle of Man but based in United States what are some of the operating issues that will have an influence on registration and ownership including EASA, JAR-OPS 2, FAA oversight, RVSM, MNPS, MEL and crew certification and training?
Isle-of-Man requires a person to have IOM, UK or EEA states citizenship, or reside, or have a place of business in Isle-of-Man.
No insurance premium tax (UK6%), “M” registration numbers.
The aircraft cannot be used for commercial air transport. Do provide airspace approvals (valid for 3 years)
o RVSM o MNPS o RNAV o Cat II/Cat III Approaches o London City Airport steep approach airspace approval
Aircraft Radio License (valid for one year) Flight Crew License Validations (valid for one year) Maintenance Program Approval Document
Operational requirements including Maintenance and training would have to be to US standards.
Isle-of-Man, Civil Aviation Authority 14CFR, Part 91, Subpart, H

64. As an American operator are you allowed to execute RNAV (GNSS) approaches?
Yes, GNSS is the generic term for what US operators know as GPS.
AC 90-94

65. Can a Part 91 operator use the Polar routes from the U.S. to China and Russia?
Yes. FAA Order 8900.1 Vol.4, Chap.1, Sec.2, Para 4-24

66. Is CPDLC required to fly the Polar routes?
No. HF is the normal means of long distance communication.
AC 91-70A, Chap.14

67. What are the SMS requirements pertaining to an N registered aircraft operating under Part 91 based outside the United States?
Commercial or Private operations, the individual state you are operating in and registered in will publish requirements for SMS. This will be published in their AIP.

68. Why is it important to have average magnetic heading available to you on your master document?
This will be required in the case of failure of the LRNS. The average magnetic heading at the waypoints will vary enough to make course correction impossible. A mid-point average will make use of a Rhumb line for navigation and will dampen the errors.
AC 91-70a, Chap.10, para. 10.3

69. Is there a way to validate routing in Europe through EuroControl?
Yes. This is done thru the Route Availability Document. Found on Euro control’s Network Operations Portal. One will need to compare the proposed route to the routes listed in the RAD. A fee based portion of this website provides for an automatic feature to this operation. ml

70. If executing published contingency procedures in an oceanic airspace is it necessary to submit an Assigned Altitude Deviation Report?
Yes. Anytime you deviate from your altitude clearance including TCAS/ACAS turbulence or contingency events 300ft or more an
Altitude Deviation Report Form should be filed. This form is found in NAT Document 007, Attachment 2

71. Where is the requirement to have two sets of corrective lens when operating internationally?
Only for near vision correction. ICAO Annex 1, para. An individual country’s AIP may differ from this requirement.

72. When an aircraft is imported into the European Union how long is that importation valid for?
Six Months for Temporary, Permanent, until you sell the aircraft. UK Customs and Revenue Website: 000237&propertyType=document

73. What are 6 digit short codes and how do I utilize them?
The 6-digit numbers are a security feature. Currently only those aircraft equipped with INMARSAT will be able to complete the telephone connection. OEM operating instructions will give specific dialing instructions.
Contact numbers and procedures are published for many of the ATS agencies.

74. What are the navigation system accuracy requirements when operating above or below MNPS airspace in the North Atlantic Region?
MNPS airspace extends from FL285 up to FL420, inclusive. MNPS places an accuracy and redundancy into the navigation specification. Above or below MNPS redundancy is the only requirement. However, deviations of 25NM or more are still defined as a Gross Navigation Error. 14CFR 91.511, NAT Doc #007

75. Are there time limits associated with IRS operation in various airspaces and when does the clock start for any existing time limits?
Yes. RNAV-10 (RNP-10) airspace operations places a time limit on INS operations. This begins from the moment the LRNS is place into “NAV” or is last updated via GNSS, DME/DME, VOR/DME or manually.
FAA Order 8400.12b, para. 13

76. Is it possible to receive a North Atlantic oceanic crossing clearance via data link if sitting on the ground at an airport close to the oceanic boundary?
Yes. If less than 45mins to the OEP, request datalink (RCL) clearance 10mins prior to engine start-up.
NAT Operational Bulletin, #2010-008

77. Where can I find conversion charts that could typically be used in international flight operations?
ICAO Annex 5 Jeppeson “Tables and Codes” section.

78. Where can I find AFTN addresses for any airport worldwide to file flight plans?
ICAO Annex 10, chap. 4 explains that the AFTN address is the ICAO four-letter identifier with a suffix for the particular office associated with the aerodrome.

79. I’ve heard that the SLOP program is suspended, or no longer recommended. Is this correct, and is there a document reference?
NO. Strategic Lateral Offset is an ongoing procedure for remote and oceanic airspace.
It is described in ICAO Doc#4444, chap. 15  (See my post dated January 26,2010 "Randomness is good!")

80. When do you leave a Flight Level for and Altitude?
The change from Flight Level to Altitude is made at the Transition Level in descent.
ICAO Doc.#8168, Sec3, Chap.4, Para 2.1.4

81. What needs to be onboard the aircraft to document that an SMS program is in place?
IBAC is issuing true and Certified copies of a company IS-BAO Certificate of Registration to be carried on the plane

82. Are there any issues to be aware of when operating in the international environment on a temporary airman certificate?
ICAO Annex 1 has no specific limitation. Individual countries may have different limitations published in their AIP.

83. What is a Load Classification Number (LCN)? Where do I find information on it?
PCN/Pavement Classification Numbers are the current ICAO terms. LCN/ Load Classification Numbers are obsolete ICAO terms. These numbers are published in the country’s AIP in the Airport and Facilities section for a particular aerodrome. You will also find this information in the front of the airport section in Jeppesen

84. Where can I find the requirements for squawking 2000 when operating in the NOPAC system?
The FAA’s Alaskan or Pacific Supplement.

85. Is there a requirement to save the NOTAMS associate with an international trip for six months?
No. A Journey Log Book shall be maintained in respect of every aircraft engaged in international navigation. In this log shall be entered particulars of the aircraft, crew and each journey. Recommended items are aeroplane nationality, registration, date, crew names and duty assignments, departure and arrival times and points, purpose and observations of the flight, PIC signature.
ICAO Article 29, 34 ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, Paragraph 11.4 ICAO Annex 6, Part 2, Paragraph 2.8.2 FAA Order 8900.1, Volume 4, Chapter 12, Paragraph 4-1299

86. Is there any specific PRNAV LOA required for PRNAV arrivals and departures for the different European countries?
No. One LOA will cover the whole of EU Airspace.
AC 90-96a

87. When did the changes to General Oceanic Contingency procedures become effective?
Amendment #2 to ICAO Doc#4444 went into effect 19NOV09

88. Is the use of the English language for aviation communication mandated by ICAO? If so where is that documented?
ICAO Annex 1, proficiency standards are contained in Appendix 1

89. What approvals do I need to operate in Russian airspace?
The Russian International AIP describes the needs for over flight and landing permits. US International NOTAMS describe the US permitting requirements.

90. While operating my BBJ how do I know that an ADS C contract has been established?
Specific FMC’s may vary; look for the “ATC LogOn” page. On this page find the “ADS” line select key. Find the “Active” prompt there. This is the indication of at least one active ADS contract. The parameters of the contract can be found on “Page 2” of the “ATC LogOn” page.

91. Where can I find an explanation of the forecast shear on my computer flight plan?
AC 00-45g Aviation Weather Services or your weather services provider.

92. Where can I find information relative to using the North Atlantic European Route Scheme and where are the routings published?
This is done thru the Route Availability Document. Found on Euro control’s Network Operations Portal. From the link below, look in the lower left corner of the page, under “Route Availability Document” ml

93. Where do I find information relative to standard phraseology to be used in international aviation?
PANS-ATM Chapter 12, Section 12.3 ICAO Annex 1, Appendix 1 ICAO Document 9432 – Manual of Radiotelephony

94. On which flights should the Master Document be saved and entered as part of the Journey Logbook?
Any flight past the 12NM limit of any coastline is to be considered ICAO international airspace.
14CFR 91.703, ICAO Annex 2

95. Do I have to know where the nearest SAR facility is on every international flight?
Operators shall ensure that the pilot has onboard especial information concerning the Search and Rescue services in the area over which the aeroplane will be flown. International airspace.
ICAO Annex 6, Part 1, Chap.3, Para 3.1.7

96. Where is the bottom line for international procedures, ICAO or the country I’m flying in?
The country whose airspace you are flying in has complete sovereignty over the airspace above its territory. ICAO provides a set of standard and recommended practices that they may choose to accept as a whole or only specific parts.
14CFR 91.703, ICAO Article 1

97. How long does a SAFA check take to complete?
Usually no more than one hour. Inspectors are instructed to take all reasonable measures to not delay the aircraft unreasonably.
AR Gen. 435

98. What special training or checkride do I need to fly international as a Part 91 operator?
None, you are not required to train, you are only required to be knowledgeable. How you get that knowledge is up to you.
FAA Order 8900.1 Vol.4, Chap. 1, Sec.2, Para 4-24

99. Is there a prescribed contingency reporting procedure for reporting a 15NM off-set?
No, there is no prescribed reporting procedure, however you should contact ATC and advise them of the action taken and request an amended clearance as soon as possible.
ICAO Doc#4444, Chap. 15, Section 15.2

100. What radiation hazards exist when operating at the altitudes that we fly at?
There are significant risks to humans at higher flight levels. These risks are details in a DOT report DOT/FAA/AM-03/16 and AC 120-61A

101. Where can I find information about “Space Weather” and radiation?
From the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center at: or by calling their ATIS broadcast at 303-497- 3235

102. Regarding FDM (Flight Data Monitoring) in Europe. A French SAFA inspector required my aircraft to have a DFDR and a FDM. Is this required for N registered airplanes to have a FOQA ?
As of this writing, Annex 6 Part II International General Aviation, including the Amendment 29, finds no standard or recommendation
regarding Flight Data Analysis. In Part I the Flight Data Analysis requirement is a part of the Safety Management System implementation. The only operators that are currently required to have this program (as a part of an SMS) are commercial operators like Part 135. These operators have been denied a charter permit when they didn't have a Flight Data Analysis program in place.

* The FAQ handout from last year has been updated with additional questions and answers compliments of the Air Training International staff *


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